Category Archives: Programming

Git Cheat Sheet

This is just a short cheat sheet for useful Git commands.


Clone an existing repository

$ git clone ssh://

Create a new local repository

$ git init

Local changes

Changes in your working directory

$ git status

Changes to tracked files

$ git diff

Add all current changes to the next commit

$ git add .

Add changes in <file> to the next commit

$ git add -p <file>

Commit all local changes in tracked files

$ git commit -a

Commit previously staged changes

$ git commit

Change the last commit

$ git commit --amend

Commit history

Show all commits, starting with the newest one

$ git log

Show changes over time for a specific file

$ git log -p <file>

Who changed what and when in <file>

$ git blame <file>

Branches & tags

List all existing branches

$ git branch

Switch HEAD branch

$ git checkout <branch>

Create a new branch based on your current HEAD

$ git branch <new_branch>

Create a new tracking branch based on a remote branch

$ git branch --track <new_branch> <remote_branch>

Delete a local branch

$ git branch -d <branch>

Mark the current commit with a tag

$ git tag <tag_name>

Update & publish

List all currently configured remotes

$ git remote -v

Show information about a remote

$ git remote show <remote>

Add new remote repository, named <remote>

$ git remote add <remote> <url>

Download all changes from <remote>, but don‘t integrate into HEAD

$ git fetch <remote>

Download changes and directly merge/integrate into HEAD

$ git pull <remote> <branch>

Publish local changes on a remote

$ git push <remote> <branch>

Delete a branch on the remote

$ git push <remote> :<branch>

Publish your tags

$ git push --tags

Merge & rebase

Merge <branch> into your current HEAD

$ git merge <branch>

Rebase your current HEAD onto <branch>
Do not rebase published commits!

$ git rebase <branch>

Abort a rebase

$ git rebase --abort

Continue a rebase after resolving conflicts

$ git rebase --continue

Use your configured merge tool to solve conflicts

$ git mergetool

Use your editor to manually solve conflicts and (after resolving) mark file as resolved

$ git add <resolved_file>
$ git rm <resolved_file>


Discard all local changes in your working directory

$ git reset --hard HEAD

Discard local changes in a specific file

$ git checkout HEAD <file>

Revert a commit (by producing a new commit with contrary changes)

$ git revert <commit>

Reset your HEAD pointer to a previous commit… and discard all changes since then

$ git reset --hard <commit>

…and preserve all changes as unstaged changes

$ git reset <commit>

…and preserve uncommitted local changes

$ git reset --keep <commit>


// CrashMAG

Nano syntax highlighting

I wanted to share an easy way of adding syntax highlighting to your favorite editor. I’ll give you examples to use for Arch Linux, RHEL, CentOS, Fedora and Debian. This all requires you to add code to your ~/.nanorc file. Luckily, the nano packages contain what you want. You just have to add it.

The typical format of these nanorc files that comes with the nano package is programming_language.nanorc.

To list the available packages for each distributions please do the following

RHEL/CentOS/Scientific Linux/Fedora

# rpm -ql nano | grep nanorc


# dpkg -S nano | grep nanorc

Arch Linux

# pacman -Ql nano

They all reside in the /usr/share/nano/ folder on each system.

You add languages to your ~/.nanorc the following way.

$ cat /usr/share/nano/programming_language.nanorc >> ~/.nanorc

The >> option will append information so you can keep using this command for each language you want to add syntax highlighting for.

// CrashMAG

Backing up a WordPress site

I created this to have something simple to schedule backups of my WordPress site.
It’s tested OK on CentOS 5.5 and 5.6. It creates 2 bzip2 tarballs with timestamps, one for the website and one for the database. And it’s run once a day. It’s then shipped off to another system using Rsync and SSH.

You will need to edit the variables before running it. If you make copies of the script, you can use it to create backups of multiple sites. I hope this will be useful for more than myself.

DATE=`date +%d-%m-%Y`
## EDIT BELOW - Configuration parameters


## STOP EDITING - Configuration parameters

if [ ! -d "$WPBACKUP" ]
        mkdir $WPBACKUP

# Grabs the necessary MySQL information from the wordpress site.
DB_NAME=`echo "<?php require_once(\"${WPSITE}/wp-config.php\"); echo DB_NAME;" | php`
DB_USER=`echo "<?php require_once(\"${WPSITE}/wp-config.php\"); echo DB_USER;" | php`
DB_PASSWORD=`echo "<?php require_once(\"${WPSITE}/wp-config.php\"); echo DB_PASSWORD;" | php`
DB_HOST=`echo "<?php require_once(\"${WPSITE}/wp-config.php\"); echo DB_HOST;" | php`

# Dump the database
mysqldump --user=${DB_USER} --password=${DB_PASSWORD} --host=${DB_HOST} $DB_NAME | bzip2 -c > $WPBACKUP/$WPSITE_NAME-db-$DATE.sql.bz2

# Tarballs the database and wordpress files with bzip2
tar -jcvf $WPBACKUP/$WPSITE_NAME-backup-$DATE.tar.bz2 --exclude cache $WPSITE/

// CrashMAG